The Pratt & Whitney F119 gas turbine turbofan engine with afterburner, used by the F/A-22 Raptor fighter jets. The photo is showing the 2 extreme vectoring cases, a special technique, called the Thrust Vector Control.
At the rear of a jet engine, a nozzle directs the flow of hot exhaust gases out of the engine and afterburner. Usually, the nozzle points straight out of the engine. The F/A-22’s nozzle, on the other hand, is the first vectoring nozzle. That means the pilot can move, or vector, the nozzle up and down by 20 degrees.
The gases coming out of the vector nozzle help push the airplane’s nose up or down. This vectoring increases the roll rate of the plane by 50 percent, making it much more maneuverable than other fighters.